Hardware Interview Questions & Answers
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1. What is hardware
Ans. The physical components of a system which can to touched and feel is called hardware
2. What is cache memory? And its types?
A. It is small and fast memory which stores the data that is required for the processor for processing.
B. L1, L2 &L3.
3. What is the difference between DDR1, DDR2 & DDR3?
4. What is the difference between core 2 duo and dual core?
Ans. DUAL CORE: separate cache memory for each core.
CORE 2 DUO: shared cache for both cores.
5. Name some processor manufactures?
Ans. Intel, AMD.
6. What are the latest processor of Intel and AMD?
7. What is file system and what is the example for the same?
Ans. It defines the way in which files or folders are named, stored and organized. FAT (File Allocation Table), FAT32 & NTFS (New Technology File System)
8. What is the difference between FAT32 and NTFS?
Size of Cluster is 4KB
Size of Cluster is 4KB
No security and quota options are available in this file system.
Security and quota options are available in this file system.
4tb(tera byte)volume size
volume size can be of 16eb(exa byte)
Max file size is 4GB
Max file 16TB minus 64KB
9. Converting FAT to NTFS?
Ans. Conver driveletter:/fs ntfs (Example: convert c:/fs ntfs)
10. what type of problems are associated with operating system like window XP?
Answer : If that PC having Windows XP Operating System
Given below are the problems
1. Select boot device in BIOS
2. If you are installed Multiple operating system, select which one you want it (that files Boot.ini)
3. ntldr misssing press ctrl+alt+del to restart
4. ntdetect.com file is missing press
5. Kernel file is missing press c+a+d to restart (ntkernol)
6. Chkdsk error
7. No media device
8. Bad RAM
9. Fatal Error (Blue Screen)
10. Once enter the OS it is showing low disk
space / low virtual memory, etc..
11. Not properly installed hardware and software drivers (see the device manager)
12. Your HDD having Bad Sectors
13. Again and again restart
14. System is hanging
11. What is boot loader?
Ans. Boot loader is called Master Boot Record (MBR), where our os is loaded.
12. What is the technical difference between Desktop Support & Help Desk?
Ans.The difference between desktop support and helpdesk are the following:
1. Desktop support is the one doing the troubleshooting on hand.
2. Helpdesk support is the one receiving the call and troubleshoot it remotely.
13. What are the core files required to boot Windows XP?
Ans. ntldr, boot.ini, bootsect.dos, ntdetect.com, ntbootdd.sys, ntoskrnl.exe, hal.dll, system, device drivers (s.sys)
14. A user calls you they can’t login in said they have tried several times what is the best way to troubleshoot this
1. Ask the user check username, password.
2. Check the network connectivity
3. Check the server is on / off
4. Check the system is member of domain/not. If not please connect the system to domain.
15. What do you mean by formatting and its types?
Ans.It is a process of erasing data or creating tracks and sectors and selecting the file system is called formatting.
Low level formatting and high level formatting.
Low level formatting: creating tracks and sectors is called low level formatting and it is also called as physical formatting.
High level formatting: selecting the file system is called high level formatting and it is also called as logical formatting.
16. How many USB devices can a single pc support?
17. ow many PCI devices can we attach to single pc?
Ans.It depends upon the mother board manufactures.
18. What do you mean by track, sector and cluster?
Ans. Concentric circles on the disk are called tracks.
Sector is the part of track and the size of the sector is 512bytes.
Cluster is a group of sectors.
19. What is the size of sector?
Ans. 512 bytes
20. What is MBR and what does it contains?
Ans. MBR stands for Master Boot Record.
First sector of the hard disk is called MBR.
It contains list of bootable files of O.S and partition information.
21. What do you mean by SMPS? What is the function of SMPS? List out the different voltages given by SMPS?
Ans. SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply): it is used to convert AC to DC.
22. List out the different connectors of SMPS and its uses?
Ans. Molex, ATX 20/24pin, Mini plug 4pin, Mini or Berg 4pin, SATA power connector.
23. What is BUS?
Ans. BUS is the interface through which data is transferred.
24. What is FSB & BSB?
Ans. FSB (Front Side Bus): it is the path used by the processor to communicate with RAM.
BSB (Back Side Bus): it is the path between L2 cache and L3 cache
25. What do you mean by jumper setting in IDE devices?
Ans. It is used to set master and slave configuration.
26. What is the difference between IDE & SATA?
IDE(Interated Drive Electronic)
SATA(Serail Advanced Technology Aattachment)
it has 40 pin
it is 7 pin
it transfer the data 16bit at a time with a spped of 100/133Mbps
it transfer the data 1 bit at a time with a speed of 600Mbps
we can connect 2 IDE devices to single cable
we can connect 1 device for one cable
max IDE cable length is 45CM
max SATA cable length is 1M
27. What do you mean by RAID and its types?
Ans. RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk) or (Redundant Array of Independent Disk): it is used for fault tolerance. Fault Tolerance provides continuous availability for data.
28. What is the speed of USB 2.0 and USB3.0?
Ans. 480Mbps and 5000Mbps.
29. List out the different I/O ports of mother board with uses and no of pins?
30. What is BIOS and what is the function of BIOS?
Ans. BIOS (Basic Input Output System)
The BIOS software is built into the PC, and is the first code run by a PC when powered on (\\\'boot firmware\\\').
The primary function of the BIOS is to set up the hardware and load and start an operating system
31. What is the function of Northbridge and south bridge?
Ans. North Bridge: it controls the communication between RAM, AGP and processor.
South bridge: it controls the communication between other parts of the mother board.
32. My monitor display a message “Please check signal cable” what might be problem and how to troubleshoot the problem?
Ans. VGA cable not connected, VGA cable problem, VGA port problem, RAM or RAM slot problem.
Note: if the monitor is displaying “frequency out of range” or HZ symbol then problem with resolution.
33. My monitor display a message “Disk boot failure” or “insert boot media and select proper boot device” what might be problem and how to troubleshoot the problem?
Ans. Hard disk power or data cable is not connected.
IDE/SATA on board interfaces may be disable in BIOS.
OS not available.
34. My pc is continuously restarting what might be the problem?
Ans. VIRUS stands for (Vital Information Resource Under Seize)
35. My pc is restarting after certain time? What might be the problem?
Ans. Overheating. Apply heat sink paste also called as thermal compound and also check CPU fan.
36. What is fire wire port? IEEE standard for fire wire?
Ans. It is used to transfer videos and photos at high speed.IEEE standard for fire wire is IEEE 1394a(400Mbps) and IEEE 1394b(800mbps)
37. What are IRQ lines?
Ans.IRQ(Interrupt ReQuest) lines: this are the lines used by the processor to communicate with the other devices.
38. What is the difference between IDE and SCSI?
IDE(Interated Drive Electronic)
SCSI(Small Computer System Interface)
it has 40 pin
58,68 and 80pin
hard disk rotation speed is 7200RPM
hard disk rotation speed is 1000 to 15000RPM
data transmission speed is 100/133Mbps
data transmission speed is 320Mbps.
we can connect 2 IDE devices to single cable
it depends up on the cable. Max 32 devices
max IDE cable length is 45CM
max SATA cable length is 25M
39. What is SCSI?
Ans.Small Computer System Interface
40. MODEM stands for? What is the function of modem?
Ans.MODEM stands for Modulation and Demodulation. MODEM is used to convert digital signal to analog signal and vice versa.
41. “Blue screen of death” what might be problem?
Ans.It may be problem drivers compatibility or RAM problem or Bad sectors
42. What is the term that describes running a processor faster than its rating for increased performance?
Ans. Over clocking
Exp. Over clocking is the practice of increasing the clock frequency of the frontside bus to increase performance. Overclocking usually requires better than standard cooling efforts to avoid damage to the processor
43. Which packaging is used for DDR SDRAM memory?
Ans. 184-pin DIMM
Exp. DDR SDRAM is manufactured on a 184-pin DIMM. DIMMs with 168 pins were used for SDR SDRAM. The SIMM is the predecessor to the DIMM, on which SDRAM was never deployed. RIMM is the Rambus proprietary competitor for the DIMM that carries DRDRAM instead of SDRAM.
44. Which motherboard design style is most widely implemented?
Exp. Although all the motherboard design styles listed are in use today, the ATX motherboard style (and its derivatives) is the most popular design.
45. Which motherboard socket type is used on the Pentium 4 chip?
Ans. Socket 478
Exp. Most Pentium 4 chips use the Socket 478 motherboard CPU socket, although not exclusively. Nevertheless, no other option listed is used for these processors.
46. Which of the socket technology that is designed to ease insertion of modern CPUs?
Exp. ZIF sockets are designed with a locking mechanism (zero insertion force)
47. Which is used to store data and programs for repeated use? Information can be added and deleted at will, and it does not lose its data when power is removed.
Ans. Hard drive
Exp. Hard drive stores data on a magnetic medium, which does not lose its information after the power is removed, and which can be repeatedly written to and erased.
48. Which motherboard socket type is used with the AMD Athlon XP?
Ans. Socket A
Exp. The Socket A (remember A for AMD) motherboard socket is used primarily with AMD processors, including the Athlon XP.
49. Which style of port is the PS/2?
Ans. Mini-DIN 6
Exp. PS/2 port is also known as a mini-DIN 6 connector.
50. What are the numbers of pins that can be found on DIMM modules used in desktop motherboards?
Ans. DIMMs used in desktop-motherboard applications have one of three possible pin counts. SDR SDRAM is implemented on 168-pin modules. DDR SDRAM and 16-bit RIMMs are implemented on 184-pin modules. DDR2 and DDR3 are implemented on 240-pin modules with different keying. Dual-channel RIMM modules have 232 pins. Modules with 200 and 204 pins are used in the SODIMM line,
51. What is the maximum speed of USB 2.0 in Mbps?
Exp. The USB 2.0 spec provides for a maximum speed of 480 megabits per second (Mbpsnot megabytes per second, or MBps).
52. What standards are specified by IEEE 1284?
Ans. EPP , ECP
Exp. Bidirectional parallel ports can both transmit and receive data. EPP and ECP are IEEE-1284 standards that were designed to transfer data at high speeds in both directions so that devices could return status information to the system.
53. Which peripheral port type was designed to transfer data at high speeds over a D-sub interface?
Ans. IEEE 1284
Exp. EEE 1284 standard defines the ECP parallel port to use a DMA channel and the buffer to be able to transfer data at high speeds to printers.
54. Which motherboard form factor places expansion slots on a special riser card and is used in low-profile PCs?
Exp. The NLX form factor places expansion slots on a special riser card and is used in low-profile PCs.
55. Which Intel processor type might be mounted on a SECC for motherboard installation?
Ans. Pentium II
Exp. The unique thing about the Pentium II is that it was attached to a single edge contact cartridge (SECC) for insertion into the motherboard, instead of the standard PGA package. Athlon is an AMD processor, the early version of which was slot-based, but not considered SECC, in any event.
56. You have just purchased a motherboard that has an LGA775 socket for an Intel Pentium 4 processor. What type of memory modules will you need for this motherboard?
Exp. Pentium 4 processors are always mated with memory mounted on DIMMs.
57. What type of expansion slot is preferred today for high-performance graphics adapters?
Exp. Although technically all slots listed could be used for video adapters, PCIe excels when compared to the other options and offers technologies, such as SLI, which only make PCIe’s advantage more noticeable.
58. What is the physical component where data are stored in a HDD?
Exp. A conventional HDD contains discs called platters, on which data are stored magnetically through read/write heads by way of a magnetic coating
59. What is the largest NTFS volume size supported by Windows XP?
Exp. A fixed number of clusters is supported by each operating system, leading to a corresponding maximum volume size. If the maximum NTFS cluster size of 64KB is used, Windows XP can support a single-volume size of 256TB. When a cluster size of one sector or 512 bytes (1/2KB) is used, the maximum volume size reduces to 2TB.
60. Which technology is based on flash memory and is intended to eventually replace conventional hard disk drives that have moving discs and other mechanisms?
Ans. Solid-state drives
Exp. Solid-state disks (SSDs) are capable of replacing conventional HDDs, contingent upon cheaper components and higher capacities.
61. Which optical disc format supports a data capacity of 25GB?
Ans. Single-sided, single-layer Blu-ray disc
Exp. Blue-ray discs have a single-sided, single-layer capacity of 25GB. The best of the other options achieve no more than roughly 17GB.
62. Describe the concept of hot-swappable devices?
Ans. Power does not need turned off before the device is inserted or removed.
Exp. Hot-swappable devices can be removed while the power to the system is still on.
63. What are the five output voltages produced by a common PC power supply?
Ans. 3.3VDC, +5VDC, 5VDC, +12VDC, and 12VDC
Exp. PC’s power supply produces +3.3VDC, +5VDC, 5VDC, +12VDC, and 12VDC
64. What kind of device uses unique physical traits of the user to authenticate their access to a secure system or location?
Ans. Biometric device
Exp. Biometric input devices scan a physical trait of the user, such as voice, fingerprint, and retina, for authentication purposes during attempts to access computer systems and other property.
65. What kind of media is most commonly used when large amounts of data need to be archived on a regular basis?
Exp. Although inefficient as an interactive medium, sequential tape-based storage continues to be developed in increasing capacities. Tape remains the best choice for frequently backing up large amounts of data for redundancy and archival purposes.
66. What can you use to convert video to a format that can be uploaded to the Internet, among other things?
Ans. video capture card
Exp. A video capture card is used to convert raw video input to a format that can be shared electronically. Although many TV tuner cards provide this functionality, it is their video-capture component that gives them this capability
67. What type of pointing device features a ball and buttons on the top and a flat, steady surface on the bottom?
Exp. A trackball is a sort of stationary mouse that has the ball for movement detection on the top of the device along with the keys. The ball is actuated by the thumb or fingers, not by moving the device along a flat surface or mouse pad. Trackballs are ideal where desk space is limited. There is no such thing as a trackpad.
68. When replacing a power supply, which of the following tends to vary among power supplies and must be chosen properly to support all connected devices?
Exp. Power supplies are rated in watts. When you purchase a power supply, you should make sure that the devices inside the computer do not require more wattage than the chosen power supply can offer. The voltage is fairly standard among power supplies and has nothing to do with the devices connected to the power supply.
69. Which of the best choice as a personal display technology if a user wants to save desk space and not have to deal with interference from nearby speakers?
Exp. LCDs do not have electron guns that are aimed by magnets like CRTs do. This difference makes LCDs more compatible with nearby speaker magnets. Additionally, the cathode ray tube for which such monitors are named is a rather bulky component, requiring more desk space to accommodate the CRT’s cabinet.
70. Which statement about LCDs is most accurate?
Ans. LCDs tend not to be as clear as CRTs.
Exp. At the same resolution, CRTs are more likely to display a clearer image than LCDs. LCDs are normally limited to a fixed, native resolution but require less power than CRT monitors. Although LCD screens are not regularly and systematically refreshed the way CRTs are, the LCD refresh rate dictates how often any one pixel is allowed to change.
71. Which video technology has a resolution of 1280 x 1024?
Exp. XGA has a resolution of 1280 x 1024. Consult Table 3.1 for the resolutions that characterize other technologies
72. What is contrast ratio?
Ans. The ratio of luminance between the darkest and lightest colors that can be displayed
Exp. Contrast ratio is a selling point for LCDs. Higher contrast ratios means darker blacks and brighter whites. The measure of luminance between adjacent pixels is known as contrast, not contrast ratio.
73. Which interfaces allows audio to be sent out over the same cabling infrastructure as video?
Exp. HDMI is a digital interface and cabling specification that allows digital audio to be carried over the same cable as video.
74. After a presentation using a video projector, when in a hurry to pack everything up and head to the airport, what should you avoid doing immediately?
Ans. Unplugging the projector’s power cable
Exp. Unplugging the power to the projector before the projector’s fan has had the opportunity to cool the unit and stop running on its own can lead to expensive repairs on the projector or to the cost of replacing the projector outright.
75. What might cause your display to appear in a resolution of 640 x 480?
Ans. You have booted into Safe Mode
Exp. Safe Mode disables as many nonessential drivers and services as possible. One of the nonessential drivers it disables is the driver for the graphics adapter. Windows uses its standard VGA driver to control the graphics adapter while you are in Safe Mode. Another reason for defaulting back to standard VGA is that you might have a corrupt or incorrect driver for your adapter.
76. Which results can occur with improper display settings?
Ans. You might have to scroll to see parts of the Desktop.
Exp. If your monitor allows you to change the resolution, it might not actually allow you to change the resolution. As confusing as that sounds, your monitor might maintain its optimal hardware resolution, such as an LCD’s native resolution, and force you to scroll to see any pixels created by the chosen software resolution that it cannot fit on the hardware screen at that particular moment.
77. Where can you find the best degaussing tool for modern CRT monitors?
Ans. Built into the monitor
Exp. The built-in degaussing tool of the latest CRT monitors is designed to work with the monitor in whom it is found. External degaussing tools, while effective, can be a little hard on the delicate inner workings of the CRT. Software alone cannot degauss a CRT monitor.
78. Which laptop input device was released with the IBM ThinkPad series of laptops?
Ans. Point stick
Exp. The Touch point stick was released with the IBM ThinkPad series of laptops.
79. Which laptop accessory allows you to power your laptop from a car or airplane?
Ans. DC adapter
Exp. DC adapter converts the DC output from a car or airplane accessory power plug into the DC voltages required by your laptop.
80. Which is the fastest and most modern interface used as an expansion method for external peripherals, such as mice, web cams, scanners, and printers, and is popular on laptops and desktops alike.
Exp. USB is used most often in laptops as an expansion bus for external peripherals. Although parallel and PS/2 allow for connection of external peripherals, they are not as flexible or widely used for expansion as USB.
81. Which kind of laptop was designed to look and function likes a paper notebook?
Exp. The tablet PC is a notebook with a flip-around screen that allows a user to hold it like a large notebook and write notes directly on the screen with a special stylus.
82. Which expansion buses uses serial communications and is capable of operating in USB and PCIe modes?
Ans. Express Card
Exp. The Express Card bus brings USB 2.0 and PCIe to the small-form factor computing industry. CardBus supports USB 1.1 and PCI only. Mini PCI is PCI, not PCIe
83. Which tab of the Display Properties dialog box in Windows XP has a button that launches Power Options Properties, allowing you to enable hibernation and set power schemes, among other things?
Ans. Screen Saver
Exp. The Screen Saver tab of Display Options has a Power button in its Monitor Power section that launches the Power Options Properties applet
84. What component allows you to keep desktop devices, such as keyboard, monitor, and mouse, permanently connected so they can be used by an attached laptop?
Ans. Docking station
Exp. A docking station made specifically for its associated brand and model of laptop can host desktop components permanently, regardless of whether the laptop is attached to the docking station. When the laptop’s portability is not required, but instead use of the desktop components is the priority, attaching the laptop to the docking station makes such components available to the laptop without separately attaching each component
85. When replacing your laptop’s AC adapter, which of the following purchase is acceptable to obtain the same or better results?
Ans. An AC adapter with a higher wattage rating than the original
Exp. When you replace a laptop’s AC adapter, you should match the voltage ratings of the original adapter. This also means you should use an adapter with a fixed voltage if that matches the characteristics of the original;
86. Which laptop input device is a flat surface that you can slide across with your finger to control the cursor?
Exp. The touchpad is an input device usually built into the laptop. It allows you to control the mouse pointer by dragging your finger across the surface.
87. Which memory type has the smallest form factor?
Ans. Micro DIMM
Exp. The SODIMM and Micro DIMM are the common laptop small-form factor memory standards. Of the two, MicroDIMM is smaller.
88. What should you use to clean electronic connectors on expansion cards?
Ans. Denatured alcohol
Exp. To clean electronic connectors, use denatured isopropyl alcohol.
89. What is the first step in the troubleshooting process?
Ans. Identify the problem
Exp. The first step is to identify the problem. Once you have done that, you should (in order) establish a theory of probable cause, test the theory, establish a plan of action to resolve
90. What type of device can help keep your computers running for a short period of time in the event of a power outage?
Ans. Uninterruptable power supply (UPS)
Exp. UPS contains batteries that can keep your system running for a short period of time in case of a power outage.
91. You open a computer case and discover an excessive amount of dust inside. What should you do?
Ans. Use a computer vacuum to remove the dust.
Exp. A computer vacuum should be used to suck up dust and other small particles. A regular vacuum generates electrostatic discharge (ESD) and should never be used. Blowing into a computer case isn’t recommended; if needed, you can use compressed air to blow small bits of dust or debris out of a computer. Dust can harm computer components.
92. If the video on your laptop is not working, what should you do to troubleshoot it?
Ans. Toggle the video function key., Try using an external monitor.
Exp. Two helpful things to try are toggling the video output function key (usually Fn+F8) and plugging an external monitor into the laptop. Removing the display is possible but not recommended. Powering the system off and back on isn’t likely to correct the problem.
93. While inspecting a motherboard, you notice a discolored area. What is usually a cause of this?
Ans. A Power surge
Exp. Discolored areas on the board are often caused by overheating. This can be the result of power surges
94. Every computer has a diagnostic program built into its BIOS called the ________.
Exp. Every computer has a diagnostic program built into its BIOS called the power-on self-test (POST). The BIOS is the software stored on the CMOS chip.
95. Which of the following is an error in Windows that happens when a program accesses memory another program is using or when a program accesses a memory addresses that doesn’t exist?
Ans. General protection fault
Exp. A general protection fault (GPF) is a common error in Windows. It happens when a program accesses memory that another program is using or when a program accesses a memory address that doesn’t exist. Typically, GPFs are the result of sloppy programming; they can often be fixed by clearing the memory with a reboot.
96. What would be the best thing to use to clean a laptop display?
Ans. LCD cleaner
Exp. Laptop LCD video displays can scratch easily. To clean them, it’s best to use a cleaner designed specifically for LCD screens.
97. What two devices are commonly used to cool components within a PC?
Ans. Fans Heat sinks
Exp. Heat sinks and fans are commonly used to cool components within a PC. Compressed air can be used to blow out small particles or dust.
98. You are having problems with the video card in one of your computers. Where could you check for troubleshooting information?
Ans. The video card manufacturer’s website, The manual that came with the card
Exp. Good sources of troubleshooting information are manufacturer’s websites, product manuals, and training materials.
99. The display on your laptop appears warped and fuzzy. You plug in an external monitor, and the image on it is fine. What is the most likely cause of the problem?
Ans. The LCD display
Exp. It has to be a problem with the LCD display. If it were the video card, then the display would appear warped and fuzzy on the external monitor as well. While many motherboards contain video circuitry, this answer is not specific enough. If the video driver were corrupted, you would have the same problem on all displays
100. Which laptop input device is a flat surface that you can draw on with your finger to control the mouse pointer?
Exp. The touchpad is a mousing surface built into the laptop. It allows you to use your finger to control the mouse pointer by drawing on the surface.
101. A user calls saying his laptop won’t power on. He charged it all night so he knows the battery is fine. What should you have him do first?
Ans. Plug the laptop in using an AC adapter and try to power it on.
Exp. If a laptop won’t power up on battery, always try to use AC power. You never know when a battery could have failed. If he had a spare and didn’t have an AC power cord, trying a spare might work, but trying AC power is the best bet. There is no battery power switch on laptops.
102. A computer is experiencing random reboots and phantom problems that disappear after reboot. What should you do?
Ans. Open the cover, clean the inside of the computer, and reseat all cards and chips.
Exp. When a computer is experiencing random reboots and phantom problems that disappear after reboot, you should open the cover, clean everything (if it’s dirty), and reseat all cards and chips. Some components could have gunk on them that carries an electrical charge, or could have experienced \\\"chip creep,\\\" where they slowly work themselves out of their sockets
103. Which of the following is used to properly discharge voltage from an unplugged computer monitor?
Ans. High-voltage probe
Exp. A high-voltage probe is designed to release the electricity from high-voltage components, which are found in the back of CRT computer monitors. Wearing an antistatic wrist strap when working on a computer monitor can cause the stored up electric current to be released through your body, which could result in serious injury or death!
104. Which measures can be implemented to reduce the risk of ESD?
Ans. Antistatic wrist strap Antistatic bag Antistatic floor mat
Exp. Antistatic wrist straps, bags (for parts), and floor mats can all help reduce the risk of ESD. There are no antistatic hair nets (but if you have long hair, it’s best to tie it back so it doesn’t contact the computer parts).
105. While working on a user’s system, you discover a sticky note attached to the bottom of the keyboard that has their username and password written on it. The user is not around, and you need to verify that the network connection is working. What should you do?
Ans. Page the user.
Exp. You should page the user and let her know she needs to verify access. You also should tell her that you saw the sticky note and highly recommend that she change her password to a new value and not write it down. Logging in to the system using the information you found would be violating the privacy of that user and should not be done. Further, logging in with someone else’s information makes you a potential scapegoat for any data that is corrupted or missing until the user changes the password.
106. A customer is trying to explain to you a problem with his system. Unfortunately, he has such a thick accent that you are unable to understand what he is saying. What should you do?
Ans. Apologize and find another user or manager who can help you translate.
Exp. While there is no perfect solution to problems of this type, the best solution is to find someone else who can mediate and help you understand the problem.
107. You have been trying to troubleshoot a user’s system all day when it suddenly becomes clear that the data is irretrievably lost. Upon informing the customer of this, he becomes so angry that he shoves you against a wall. What should you do?
Ans. Try to calm the user down, and leave the site if you cannot.
Exp. Physical abuse violates respect and should be avoided at all costs. You should try to calm the user down. If you cannot do this, you should leave the site immediately and not return until it is safe to do so. You may also want to report the incident to your management so that they’re aware of the situation.
108. A customer tells you that the last technician who was there spent three hours on the phone making personal calls. What should you do with this information?
Ans. Inform your manager.
Exp. The customer is expressing a concern that she was not shown respect by a technician from your company. You should apologize and make your manager aware of the situation or concern. Unless you are a supervisor, which is not implied in the question, you should not personally talk to the technician about the issue.
109. You arrive at the site of a failed server to find the vice president nervously pacing and worrying about lost data. What should you do?
Ans. Inform him that you’ve dealt with similar situations and will let him know what needs to be done as soon as possible.
Exp. You should always act with confidence and in a way similar to how you would want to be treated if you were in the customer’s situation. Ignoring, downplaying, or joking about the vice president’s obvious concern are very poor choices
110. Which statement is true regarding upgrading a computer system?
Ans. When upgrading RAM, it is possible that you can upgrade RAM only.
Exp. Very often, computer systems prove to have an upgrade path for their RAM. Also, upgrading the RAM is the least expensive upgrade compared to the increase in performance that you can observe, up to a point
111. Which two of the following are today’s best choices for video adapter technology?
Ans. PCIe AGP
112. While installing a CPU, you apply gentle pressure to the surface of the CPU, but it will not seat. When you examine the pins of the CPU to see if they are straight, you find that a number of them are bent. Why are the bent pins not the original problem?
Ans. The socket has a ZIF mechanism that must be released before inserting the CPU.
Exp. You should never apply insertion pressure to a CPU. With ZIF sockets, you release the lever on the side of the socket, and the CPU should drop right in, sometimes with delicate urging but never with what could be considered pressure.
113. What is the term for an operating system—independent operation that ties a hard drive to its controller card?
Ans. Low-level formatting
Exp. The question describes low-level formatting, which is performed by the manufacturer for ATA (IDE) drives but must be performed by the installer for SCSI drives. Partitioning and high-level formatting are based on the operating system being used, and scrubbing is an informal term used to describe the behavior of certain integrity-checking utilities.
114. What does the red stripe on a ribbon cable indicate?
Ans. Pin 1
Exp. The red stripe on the cable indicates pin 1.
115. Which system resource allows an expansion card, for instance, to signal the CPU that it requires some of the CPU’s time?
Ans. IRQ lines
Exp. Interrupt request (IRQ) lines perform as stated in the question. The other three resources have nothing to do with this action.
116. On the primary IDE channel, if a single hard disk is attached, its jumper should be set to _______
Ans. Single if available, otherwise Master
Exp. If there is a Single setting, it should be used. Otherwise, use Master. Slave is never appropriate for a single drive. There is no such jumper setting as Boot.
117. What is the name of the utility that allows you to check hardware resources and alter them, if allowed?
Ans. A Device Manager
Exp. Only Device Manager allows you access to the resources being used by the various hardware components. Task Manager and Control Panel allow you to monitor and alter certain items but not hardware resources, as Device Manager is designed to do
118. Where can you obtain the service manual for a laptop computer?
Ans. From the manufacturer’s website
Exp. Laptop service manuals can be obtained from the manufacturer’s website. It’s very rare that paper service manuals are shipped with the laptop. Pressing F1 while in Windows will open Windows Help, and pressing F2 on many laptops during the system boot will take you into the BIOS.
119. Which of the following are components of an LCD?
Ans. Inverter Screen
Exp. The components of an LCD screen are the inverter, screen, and backlight. The video card is also a key component of the LCD system. A CRT is a different technology than LCD
120. Which of the following are laptop memory form factor standards?
Ans. Micro DIMM SODIMM
Exp. The two laptop memory form factor standards are the 144-pin SODIMM and 172-pin MicroDIMM.
121. What type of connector does a Mini PCIe card have?
Ans. 52-pin card edge
Exp. Mini PCIe cards have 52-pin card edge connectors. Mini PCI cards have either a 100-pin stacking connector or a 124-pin card edge connector.
122. Which LCD component is responsible for providing the right kind of power to the monitor?
Exp. The inverter provides power to the backlight. The backlight provides light to the LCD screen, and the screen displays the picture.
123. What type of connector does a Mini PCI type IA card have?
Ans. 100-pin stacking
Exp. Mini PCI cards have either a 100-pin stacking connector or a 124-pin card edge connector. Type I cards have a 100-pin card edge connector. Mini PCIe cards have 52-pin card edge connectors.
124. Which laptop component is often upgraded with an external PCMCIA device?
Ans. Network card
Exp. Network cards are available in PCMCIA forms. If your network card fails or you need an upgrade, you can easily install an external PCMCIA NIC.
125. When upgrading the system BIOS, what is one way you may be able to change the boot sequence?
Ans. By pressing F2 while the system is booting up
Exp. Pressing F2 on many laptops during the system boot will take you into the BIOS. Pressing F1 while in Windows will open Windows Help. Inserting a boot CD will not change the boot sequence. There is no BIOS key on the laptop.
126. How many pins does a SODIMM memory module have?
Exp. SODIMM memory chips have 144 pins. MicroDIMM chips have 172 pins.
127. What should you do first to remove external devices from your laptop?
Ans. Click the Safely Remove Hardware icon
Exp. Before removing external hardware, you should click the Safely Remove Hardware icon.
128. Which of the following is a digital connector for video that you may find on video card?
Exp. DVI connector is for digital video. A VGA connector is for analog video. LCD and CRT are monitor types.
129. What are common types of Mini PCI card devices?
Ans. Hard drive controller Network Sound cardcard
Exp. Hard drive controllers (SATA and SCSI), network cards, and sound cards can all be found in Mini PCI forms. Hard drives are not made in Mini PCI form.
130. Your laptop has 2GB of installed memory and uses shared video memory. If the video card is using 512MB, how much is left for the rest of the system?
Exp. If the laptop is using shared video memory, then the system memory is shared with the video card. If the video card is using 512MB (half a gigabyte), then there is 1.5GB left for the system
131. Which two of the following are types of LCD screens?
Ans. Active matrix Passive matrix
Exp. The two types of LCD screens are active matrix and passive matrix.
132. You have just installed a new printer. After it is installed, it prints only garbled text. Which of the following is likely the problem?
Ans. Incorrect print drivers
Exp. If a printer is using out-of-date or incorrect printer drivers, the printer may produce pages of garbled text. The solution is to ensure that the most recent printer drivers are downloaded from the manufacturer’s website
133. What are the most common causes of crinkled paper coming out of a laser printer?
Ans. The printer’s gears. The printer has an obstructed paper path are stripped.
Exp. The printer’s paper path is probably obstructed by something, or its gears have been stripped by paper feeding incorrectly. Obstructions are usually caused by paper from a previous jam. When cleaning out a paper jam, make sure you get all the paper
134. You have a bubble-jet printer. Recently, papers are being printed with excessive amounts of ink, and the ink is smearing. What is the most likely cause of the problem?
Ans. A faulty ink cartridge
Exp. If an ink cartridge is faulty or develops a hole, it can release excessive amounts of ink, which will lead to smearing. A corrupted printer driver would result in printing garbage. Bubble-jet printers do not have a fuser. Excessive humidity may cause smearing, but not too much ink being disbursed.
135. You are troubleshooting a client system. The client has just installed a new device, but the system now reports a resource conflict at I/O addresses 0x02E802EF. What is this address range normally used for?
Exp. Most devices attached to the computer system are assigned an I/O address range. If two devices share even a single address, a conflict occurs. In this case, COM4 uses the address range 0x02E802EF (also referred to as base-I/O address 0x02E8) by default
136. Which is a valid CPU and socket/slot pairing?
Ans. Core 2 Quad, Socket T
Exp. Socket T, or LGA 775, accommodates such processors as the Core 2 Quad and Core 2 Duo processors as well as the faster and later Pentium 4 CPUs
137. What is the term for the concentric magnetic rings on the surface of a disk platter?
Exp. Tracks are concentric rings formed magnetically in the factory or through low-level formatting. Tracks form the boundaries within which data is written to the surface of a platter
138. What differentiates a solid-state drive from a conventional hard disk drive?
Ans. No moving parts
Exp. Solid-state drives have no moving parts like conventional hard disk drives. They rival smaller conventional drives in capacity but are not yet offered in as large a capacity overall. They tend to be more expensive than conventional drives per byte of capacity but use the same drive interfaces, such as SATA interfaces, for example
139. How much data can a single layer of a standard DVD hold?
Exp. A single-sided, single-layer DVD holds 4.7GB of data.
140. Which of the following display types bombards the viewing screen with electrons, making the device more susceptible to magnetic interference?
Exp. Displays based on cathode ray tube (CRT) technology excite phosphor dot trios on the back of the viewing screen by shooting electrons from electron guns, making the phosphors glow in red, green, or blue. By varying the intensity of the bombardment among the three dot phosphors, millions of colors per pixel are attainable. Magnetic interference can affect the aim of the electron guns. LCDs and touchscreen panels do not use dot phosphors to display images
141. What is the name of the standard that defines power management for laptop computers?
Exp. ACPI is the power management standard introduced in 1996. It’s an extension of the system BIOS that is responsible for managing power to devices in your system.
142. What are benefits of a USB connection, making it a popular choice for printers?
Ans. It automatically recognizes new devices.
Exp. It has a higher transfer rate than a parallel connection. It has a higher transfer rate than a serial connection.
143. When chips heat and cool repeatedly, they can work their way out of their sockets. This phenomenon is called what?
Ans. Chip creep
Exp. Chip creep is when the chip wiggles itself out of a socket. This can be caused by the chip heating and cooling repeatedly. With most chips today held in by clips, this is not usually a problem anymore.
144. Which of the following standards supports communications up to 54Mbps?
Exp. The 802.11g standard supports speeds up to 54Mbps. 802.11x refers to the family of 802.11 standards, and 802.11b supports only up to 11Mbps. Bluetooth is limited to 3Mbp
145. Which of the following communication technologies is designed for use with peripheral devices such as keyboards, mice, and wireless headsets
Exp. Bluetooth was made to work as a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). As such, it’s perfect for computer peripherals such as keyboards, mice, and wireless headsets
146. Which of the following CPU-cooling methods requires a pump in order to function?
Ans. A Liquid cooling
Exp. Liquid cooling and phase-change cooling methods use pumps to circulate the cooling medium. The other technologies use physics that do not require pumps to function
147. Which of the following is a reason for using thermal compound on a CPU?
Ans. To promote the uniform transfer of heat from the CPU to the heat sink
Exp. Thermal compound has become mandatory in creating a uniform heat-transfer layer between the CPU and heat sink.
148. Which interfaces offers the highest data rate?
Exp. FireWire comes in 400 and 800Mbps versions. The closest competitor in this list of options is USB 1.1, which tops out at 12Mbps. You have to employ USB 2.0 at 480Mbps to challenge FireWire (IEEE 1394)
149. What is the term for one of the segments of a track on the platter of a magnetic disk?
Exp. Tracks are segmented into sectors, each of which routinely stores up to 512 bytes of data. Sectors are created in the factory or during low-level formatting. Clusters and allocation units are two terms for a collection of one or more sectors. Clusters are formed during high-level formatting by an operating system.
150. What type of adapter card would be used in the accelerated graphics port of an ATX motherboard?
Ans. AGP video card
Exp. The AGP port is specifically designed to provide increased performance for video cards. No other common device has been adapted for use in the AGP port.
151. Which of the following can help to improve the sharpness of display quality?
Ans. Increasing the refresh rate
Exp. Increasing the refresh rate serves to sharpen a display’s image, as long as the monitor supports the selected rate
152. When turning on a newer CRT, you hear an extremely short buzzing sound. The user says the monitor has always done that, and the CRT appears to be okay. What caused the sound
Ans. The monitor is degaussing itself.
Exp. Newer CRTs have a self-degaussing feature that activates whenever the monitor is powered on. This increases the quality of the image and reduces the need to perform a manual degaussing
153. What is the piece of software that allows the operating system to talk to a hardware device called?
Ans. Device driver
Exp. Device drivers are software applications that enable the operating system to talk to hardware devices.
154. What is the recommended use policy on magnetic-tipped screwdrivers inside computers?
Ans. Do not use them.
Exp. A good rule of thumb when it comes to magnetic-tipped screwdrivers is to avoid using them inside a computer case. Magnetic tools can damage data on disks that use a magnetic storage scheme
155. Which of the following terms refers to a single memory module playing the role of two separate modules?
Exp. Double-sided memory uses additional pins on the modules to allow access to only half the memory locations at a time. The memory controller switches to whichever side it needs to access at any given moment.
156. Which of the following is the ability of a single application to have multiple requests in to the processor at one time?
Exp. The ability of a single application to have multiple requests in to the processor at one time is known as multithreading.
157. What is the maximum number of devices that can be supported by USB?
Exp. Though it is unlikely that it would ever be necessary, a single USB chain can theoretically support 127 different peripheral devices. This includes scanners, cameras, MP3 players, printers, keyboards, and so on
158. What is the name of the technology that allows the hard disk subsystem to warn you of an impending failure before data loss occurs?
Exp. The Self Monitoring and Reporting Technology (SMART) was designed to warn users and technicians that data loss is imminent. This early warning often allows data to be backed up and a hard drive replaced before such data loss occurs.